- The use of political, economical, and military power to perpetuate discriminatory beliefs, behaviors, practices, and institutionalized bias.
- A set of implicit or explicit beliefs, assumptions and actions based upon an ideology that one racial or ethnic group is superior to another, and which is evident in organizations or institutions, as well as individuals and individual behaviors. Racism includes racist slurs (insults or degrading remarks).
- A form of racial discrimination that stems from conscious, personal prejudice. Systemic racism: a general employment condition, specific practice, and/or workplace that negatively affects employment opportunity or advancement for specific groups of people.
Systemic racism manifests itself in two ways:
- Institutional racism – racial discrimination that derives from individuals carrying out the dictates of others who are prejudiced or of a prejudiced society; and
- Structural racism – inequalities rooted in the system-wide operation of a society which exclude substantial numbers of members of particular ethnic categories from significant participation in its major social institutions.